The Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) is a tool which measures policies to integrate migrants in all EU Member States, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA.
167 policy indicators offer a rich, multi-dimensional picture of migrants’ opportunities to participate in society. The index is a useful tool to evaluate and compare what governments are doing to promote the integration of migrants in all the countries analysed.
Among the eight policy areas analysed, the most interesting for the Synergies project is the first one: Labour Market Mobility.
MIPEX informs and engages key policy actors about how to use indicators to improve integration governance and policy effectiveness.
To that end, MIPEX identifies and measures integration outcomes, integration policies, and other contextual factors that can impact policy effectiveness; describes the real and potential beneficiaries of policies; and collects and analyses high-quality evaluations of integration policy effects.
Some data about Italy:
Do immigrants have equal rights and opportunities to access jobs and improve their skills?
Countries recently dependent on migrant workers (CZ, GR, IT, PL, ES) may treat them equally as workers under the law, but often ignore the specific challenges of the foreign-born.
Are immigrants acquiring new skills?
Hardly any non-EU adults (<9%) were accessing education and training in several parts of Central and Southern Europe (e.g. EE/LV, HU, SI, CY, GR, IT). Overall, uptake of education and training was only slightly higher among women, but much higher among high-educated men and women in most Western European countries (esp. AT/DE/CH, FR, IT).
Among the Policy Recommendations for Italy, we read:
– Remedy IT’s widespread problem of ‘over-qualification’ so that educated immigrant workers find jobs matching their expectations and avoiding the unproductive waste of their skills and expertise.
This Recommendation is closely related to the Synergies project’s aim. Without a proper system for recognition (and validation) of prior learning, the waste of skills and expertise will continue.
Finally, the website offers some general remarks read in robust studies, of a more general interest for all Synergies partners and other stakeholders:
So far, only certain general and targeted employment policies can be directly associated with better labour market outcomes for immigrants and a lower incidence of employment discrimination. Robust evaluations collected through MIPEX project suggest that what works for non-immigrants also works well for immigrants, especially for the low-educated, although these programmes work better when applied early and targeted to immigrants’ specific needs. Immigrants benefit the most from programmes providing early work experience. Some evidence also suggests that early work-focused introduction programmes can also boost employment outcomes, so long as their focus is country-specific vocational trainings and the programme is combined with work experience to avoid the ‘lock-in effect of courses. Other rather effective programmes include start-up funds for immigrant entrepreneurs and job search assistance (identifying migrants’ skills and helping them look for jobs). More indirectly, facilitating naturalisation, a secure residence and a secure family life seems to have positive effects on boosting labour market outcomes for certain immigrants.
The information provided in this page is taken from the Migrant Integration Policy Index 2015 Website, in particular from two webpages: http://mipex.eu/labour-market-mobility and http://mipex.eu/italy
Further readings (all documents mentioned are available online):
Measuring well-governed migration. The 2016 Migration Governance Index. A study by The Economist Intelligence Unit: http://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/our_work/EIU-Migration-Governance-Index-20160429.pdf
(ALPHA Association, Genoa, Italy; July 2016)